The Commentaries on Nahj al Balaghah



Since the times of al-Radi, Nahj al-balaghah has been a subject of study and
interpretation. As reported earlier al Sayyid al-Murtada's daughter used to
narrate her uncle's work, and the book had become a subject of study in
academic circles. The Kitab nameh yi Nahj al Balaghah published in 1359
Sham./1980 in Persian from Iran, enlists 370 titles of various commentaries,
translations, selections and books dealing with its madarik and masadir
(sources) in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish, English, Gujrati and French.
This bibliography cannot be considered to be complete in any way, for it is
compiled in Iran and the compiler depended on secondary sources such as
al-Dhari'ah, Kakh-e dilawiz, Nuqaba' al-bashar, etc., as he had no access to
the works in other languages, particularly Indian languages. A large number
of titles could have been added to this list with some research in the
languages unfamiliar to the Persians. A selected bibliography on the basis of
this Kitab-nameh and two other books was compiled and published in al-Tawhid,
vol. II, no. 2.

Selected Commentaries on Nahj al Balaghah

        1.  Alam Nahj al-balaghah by al-Sayyid 'Ali ibn Nasir al-'Alawi,
            reportedly a contemporary of al-Radi. Firstly, this book
            refers to some other commentaries, which means it may not
            be the first. Secondly, its style is not that of the fifth
            century and the book may belong to a later period.

        2.  Ma'arij Nahj al-balaghah by Shaykh Abu al-Hasan Abu al-Qasim
            Zayd ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali al:Bayhaqi al-Nishaburi, popularly
            known as Farid-e Khurasan (d. 565/1169). This sharh is supposed
            to be based on the copy of Nahj al-balaghah that was approved
            by al-Radi himself.

        3.  Hada'iq al-haqa'iq: al-'isbah fi Sharh Nahj al-balaghah by
            Abu al-Hasan Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Bayhaqi al-Nishaburi,
            known as Qutb al-Din al-Kundari, compiled in 576/1180. Its
            one manuscript is in Madrasah-ye Fadiliyyah, Mashhad.

        4.  and 5. Al-Ma'arij fi Sharh Nahj al-balaghah (also called al
            -Mi'raj) and Minhaj al-bara'ah (written in 556/1170) by Qutb
            al-Din al-Rawandi (d. 573/1177).

        6.  An incomplete commentary by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (543 or
            44-606/1149-50-1209), mentioned in Ta'rikh al-hukamd
            by Jamal al-Din al-Qifti.

        7.  A commentary attributed to 'Abd al Jabbar al-Mu'tazili, and
            also three other scholars contemporary of al-Shaykh al-Tusi
            (385-460/995-1067-68)

        8.  Sharh by Diya' al-Din Abu al-Rida Fadl Allah ibn 'Ali
            al-Rawandi (d. after i58/1065-66).

        9.  Sharh 'Izz al-Din ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mu'tazili(d. 656/1258).
            This is the most famous commentary on which several
            commentaries have been written. This has been translated into
            Persian, French and most probably in Urdu. Its selection
            Iltiqat al-durar al-nukhab was compiled in 1283/1866-67.
            Commentaries written on it number at least fifteen, among the
            authors of which are such eminent names as Ahmad ibn Tawus
            (d. 637/1239), Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani (d. 1107/i695-96),
            Shaykh Yusuf al-Bahrani (1186!1772-3), Shaykh Muhsin Karim
            'Abd al-Husayn ibn Musa, Mahmud Mallah and others. Critiques
            of his commentary were mainly directed against his position
            regarding the caliphate. Though Ibn Abi al-Hadid recognized
            al-Khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyyah as genuinely attributed to al-'Imam
            'Ali (as), he, however, tried to interpret it in accordance
            with Sunni belief in the legitimacy of al-Khilafat al-Rashidah.
        
        10. Al-Sharh al-kabir by Ibn al-Maytham al-Bahrani (d. 679/1280).
            Ibn al-Maytham wrote other commentaries on the book also viz.
            Mishah al-saliEfn and its abridgement Mukhtasar Misbah al-
            salikin, and Minhaj al-'arifin, a commentary on Mi'at kalimah
            li-'Amir al-Mu'minin by al Jahiz.

        11. Al-Dibaj al mudi' fi sharh Nahj al-balaghah li al-Radi by
            Imam al-Mu'ayyad bi Allah Yahya ibn Hamzah al-'Alawi al-Yamani
            (d. 749/1348-9) which deals with the difficult words occurring
            in Nahj al-balaghah.

        12. Mulhaq Nahj al-balaghah, a commentary written around the
            beginning of the eighth/ fourteenth century by Ahmad ibn
            Yahya, a manuscript of which copied in 729/1328-29 is in
            the Kitabkhaneh-yi Astaneh-yi Quds Ridawi, Mashhad.

        13. Sharh al-nafa'is by an unknown Sunni author written in
            759/1357-58 available in the Kitabkhaneh-yi Astaneh-yi
            Quds Ridawi Mashhad.

        14. Sharh by Kamal al-Din 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim
            al-'Ata'iqi al-Hilli compiled in 770/1368-69.

        15. Minhaj al-fasahah by Kamal al-Din Husayn ibn Khwajah Sharaf
            al-Din 'Abd al-Haqq al-'Ardebili Ilahi (d. 950il543-44).

        16. Minhaj al-wilayah by Mulla 'Abd al-Baqi al-Sufi al-Tabrizi
            al-Khattat, known as Danishmand (d. 1039/1629-30).

        17. Sharh by Abu Talib Taj al-Din 'Ali ibn Anjab, known as Ibn
            Sa'id (d. 674/l275-6).

        18. Sharh by al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al Saffati
            (d. 650/1252-3).

        19. Al-Tuhfat al-'Aliyyah fisharah Nahj al-balaghat at-Haydariyyah
            by Muhammad ibn Habib Allah, grandson of Khalifah Sultan,
            compiled ih 881/l476.

        20. Al-Mawdhib al-Ilahiyyah by al-Sayyid Afsah al-Din Muhammad
            al-Shirazi (the 9th century H.).

In later centuries, numerous commentaries were written in Arabic and
Persian, details of which can be found in the Kitabnameh-yi Nahj al-balaghah
and al-Tawhid (English), vol. II, no.2. In addition to these several other
works were compiled with regard to the sources of the contents of Nahj al-
balaghah in Arabic, Urdu and Persian, among which the following can be
mentioned here:

Commentaries available in Persian

        1.  Rida Ustadi, Bahthi kutah piramun-e Nahj al-balaghah wa
            madarik-e an (1396/1976).

        2.  Kitabnameh-yi Nahj al-balaghah by the above-mentioned
            author (1359 Sham./ 1980).

        3.  Barrasi-yi Nahj al-baldghah wa asnad-e an by Sayyid Jawad
            Mustafawi.

        4. Pizhuhishi dar asnad wa madarik-e Nahj al-balaghah by
           Sayyid Muhammad Ja'fari (1356 Sham./ 1977).

Commentaries available in Arabic

        1.  Mustatrafat Nahj al-baldghah by Shaykh Fakhr al-Din al-
            Turayhi (d. 1085/1674).

        2.  Masadir Nahj al-balaghah by 'Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni al-
            Khatib, in four volumes (1386/1966-67).

        3.  Madarik Nahj al-balaghah by al Shaykh Hadi Kashif al
            Ghita' (d.1361/1942), printed in 1354/1935.

        4.  Madarik Nahj al-balaghah by al Shaykh 'Abd Allah Ni'mah,
            published from Beirut

        5.  Mustadrak Nahj al-balaghah by Shaykh Kashif al Ghita,
            printed in 1354/1935.

        6.  Masadir Nahj al-balaghah by Hibat al-Din al Shahristani
            (1301-1386/1883-84-1966-67),

        7.  Ma huwa Nahj al-balaghah by al Sayyid Hibat al-Din al-
            Shahristani, compiled in 1352/1933-34 and printed the
            same year. Also translated into Persian and published
            twice.

A number of translations and commentaries on the Imam's letter to Malik
al-'Ashtar have been written in Persian which number around fifty, of
which some were in verse. The authors of some of these shuruh are persons
of eminence like Mulla Muhammad Salih Rawghani, Muhammad Husayn Furughi
Dhaka' al-Mulk (d. 1325/1907-08), Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Furughi (1257-1321
Sham./ 1878-1942), Ahmad ibn Hafiz Qatil Kirmani, known as Adib (d. 1329/
1911), Sharif al-'Amili, and al-'Allamah al-Majlisi (d. 1111/1699-1700).
The complete text of Nahj al-balaghah was also translated in verse many a
time. In Arabic, too, the letter to Malik al-'Ashtar was commented upon by
numerous scholars.

Al-Khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyyah had been also attracting the attention of Arab
commentators and Persian translators. Nahj al-balaghah's Persian translations
started to appear much earlier than the Safawids came to power. Husayn ibn
Sharaf al-Din Ardebili, a contemporary of Shah Isma'il Safawi, translated
Nahj al-balaghah which was published in 1355/1936 with the Arabic text.
Among the popular Persian translations we can name the ones by Sayyid 'Ali
Naqi Fayd al-'Islam, Jawad Fadil, and Asad Allah Mubashshiri. Among the early
translations one was done by Nizam al-Din 'Ali ibn al-Hasan al-Gilani, which
was completed in 1036/1626-27. The earliest Persian translation is by Mulla
Fath Allah al-Kashani (d. 988/1580-81) under the title Tanbih al-ghafilin, a
third printing of which came out of the press in 1313/1895-96. A popular
revolutionary leader and scholar Ayatullah Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani (d. 1399/
1979) also translated Nahj al-balaghah and published it with his commentary
in 1326 Sham./1947.

Urdu translations of Nahj al Balaghah

   1.  al-'Isha'ah by Sayyid Awlad Hasan ibn Muhammad Hasan Amruhawi
            (d. 1338/1919-20), Nayrang-e fasahat by Dhakir Husayn Akhtar
            Dehlawi, and three other translations by Zafar Mahdi ibn Sayyid
            Warith Husayn Ja'isi, Ra'is Ahmad Ja'fari (a Sunni author),
            and Mufti Ja'far Husayn. All these translations were accompanied
            by notes and comments.

        2.  I'jaz Husayn Badayuni (d. 1350/1931-32) compiled a book to
            explain difficult words of the book under the name Hall-e
            lughat-e Nahj al-balaghah.

        3.  Imtiyaz 'Ali Khan 'Arshi's Istinad-e Nahj al-balaghah has
            already been discussed. Aqa Buzurg al-Tehrani, in al-
            Dhari'ah ila tasanif al-Shi'ah, has referred to another
            Tarjumah wa sharh in Urdu by Sayyid 'Ali Azhar Khajwi al-
            Hindi (d. 1352/1933-34).
        
        4.  Sayyid Sibt al-Hasan al-Hanswi's work Minhaj Nahj al-balaghah
            is rated among the best of its kind in Urdu. A few years ago
            Mahmud Husayn Qaysar Amruhawi published a lengthy article in
            many parts in an Urdu journal on the sources of Nahj al-balaghah
            and the authenticity of the ascription of its contents to al-'
            Imam 'Ali (as). There are, of course, a number of articles and
            booklets compiled about Nahj al-balaghah in Urdu.