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RIGHTS OF GOD

1-THE GREATEST RIGHT OF GOD

Then the greatest right of God incumbent upon you is that you worship Him without associating anything with Him. When you do that with sincerity, He has made it binding upon Himself to give you sufficiency in the affairs of this world and the next and to keep for you whatever of them 4 that you like.

حقوق الله

1 . حق الله الأكبر

فأَمَّا حَقُّ اللهِ الأَكْبَرُ فَإنَّكَ تَعْبُدُهُ لا تُشْرِكُ بهِ شَيْئاً، فَإذَا فَعَلْتَ ذَلِكَ بإخلاصٍ جَعَلَ لَكَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَنْ يَكفِيَكَ أَمْرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَيَحْفَظَ لَكَ مَا تُحِبُّ مِنْهَما.

2- THE RIGHT OF YOURSELF

And the right of yourself incumbent upon you is that you employ it in obeying God; then you deliver to your tongue its right, to your hearing its right, to your sight its right, to your hand its right, to your leg its right, to your stomach its right, to your private part its right, and you seek help from God in all that.

2. حق النفس

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ نَفْسِكَ عَلَيْكَ فَأَنْ تَسْتَوْفِيَهَا فِي طَاعَةِ اللهِ فَتُؤَدّي إلَى لِسَانِكَ حَقَّهُ وَإلَى سَمْعِك حَقَّهُ وَإلَى بَصَرِكَ حَقّهُ وَإلَى يَدِكَ حَقَّهَا وَإلَى رِجْلِك حَقَّهَا وَإلَى بَطْنِكَ حَقَّهُ وَإلَى فَرْجِكَ حَقَّهُ وَتَسْتَعِينَ باللهِ عَلَى ذَلِك.


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3- THE RIGHT OF YOUR TONGUE

And the right of the tongue is that you consider it too noble for obscenity, accustom it to good, direct it to politeness, 5 do not use it except in situations of needs and benefits of the religion and this world, and refrain from any meddling in which there is little to be gained, and there is no security from its harm that accompanies its small benefits. It 6 is the witness to and the evidence of the existence of the intellect. The demonstration of an intelligent person's intellect is through his reputation of good speech 7. And there is no power but in God the High, the Great.

3. حق اللسان

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ اللّسَان فَإكْرَامُهُ عَنِ الْخَنَى(1) وتَعْوِيدُهُ عَلَى الْخَيْرِ وَحَمْلُهُ عَلَى الأَدَب وَإجْمَامُهُ إلاّ لِمَوْضِعِ الْحَاجَةِ وَالْمَنْفَعَةِ لِلدِّينِ وَالدُّنْيَا وَإعْفَاؤُهُ عَنِ الْفُضُول اُلشَّنِعَةِ الْقَلِيلَةِ الْفَائِدَةِ الَّتِي لا يُؤْمَنُ ضَرَرُهَا مَعَ قِلَّةِ عَائِدَتِهَا. وَيُعَدُّ شَاهِدَ الْعَقْلِ وَالدَّلِيلَ عَلَيْه وَتَزَيُّنُ الْعَاقِلَ بعَقْلِهِ حُسْنُ سِيرَتِهِ فِي لِسَانِهِ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ.


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4- THE RIGHT OF YOUR HEARING

And the right of hearing is to keep it pure by not making it the direct pathway to your heart, except for noble words that establish some good in your heart or grant you a noble trait. Indeed hearing is the gateway through which various concepts reach the heart -whether good or evil. And there is no power but in God8 .

4. حق السمع

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ السَّمْعِ فَتَنْزِيهُهُ عَنْ أَنْ تَجْعَلَهُ طَرِيقًا إلَى قَلْبكَ إلا لِفُوهَةٍ كَرِيمَةٍ تُحْدِثُ فِي قَلبكَ خَيْرًا أَو تَكْسِبُ خُلُقًا كَرِيمًا فَإنَّهُ بَابُ الْكَلامِ إلَى الْقَلْب يُؤَدِّي إلَيْهِ ضُرُوبُ الْمَعَانِي عَلَى مَا فِيهَا مِن خَيْرٍ أَو شَرِّ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.

5- THE RIGHT OF YOUR SIGHT

And the right of your sight is that you lower it before everything, which is unlawful to you. And that you abandon using it, except in situations in which you can take heed in such a way that you gain insight or acquire knowledge by it. Indeed sight is the gateway to learning.

5. حق البصر

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ بَصَرِكَ فَغَضُّهُ عَمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وتَرْكُ ابْتِذَالِهِ إلاّ لِمَوضِعِ عِبْرَةٍ تَسْتَقْبلُ بهَا بَصَرًا أَو تَسْتَفِيدُ بهَا عِلْمًا، فَإنَّ الْبَصَرَ بَابُ الِاعْتِبَارِ .


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6- THE RIGHT OF YOUR LEGS

And the right of your legs is that you walk not with them toward that which is unlawful to you. And you should not direct them in the way that will lead the person they carry to being debased. Your legs will carry you in the direction of the religion and they will help you go ahead. And there is no power but in God 9.

6. حق الرجلين

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ رِجْلَيْكَ فَأَنْ لا تَمْشِي بهِمَا إلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وَلا تَجْعَلْهُمَا مَطِيَّتَكَ فِي الطَّرِيقِ الْمُسْتَخِفَّةِ بأَهْلِهَا فِيهَا فَإنَّهَا حَامِلَتُكَ وَسَالِكَةٌ بكَ مَسْلَكَ الدِّينِ وَالسَّبْقُ لَكَ، وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بالله .


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7- THE RIGHT OF YOUR HAND

And the right of your hand is that you stretch it not toward that which is unlawful to you. Should you do so, you will be chastised by God in the future. And you are not secure from the blameful tongue of the people now, either. Do not prevent your hands from performing what God has made obligatory for them. You should honor your hands in such a way as to prevent them from engaging in many of the deeds that are not allowed for them. You should let them engage in many deeds that are not harmful for them. If they 10are now used by the intellect and with honor now, then they are bound to receive a good reward inthe future 11.

7. حق اليد

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ يَدِكَ فَأَنْ لا تَبْسُطَهَا إلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ فَتَنَالَ بمَا تَبْسُطُهَا إلَيْهِ مِنَ اللهِ الْعُقُوبَةَ فِي الآجِلِ، وَمِنَ النَّاسِ بلِسَانِ اللائِمَةِ فِي الْعَـاجِلِ، وَلا تَقْبضَهَا مِمَّا افْتَرَضَ اللهُ عَلَيْهَا وَلَكِنْ تُوقّرَِهَا بقَبْضِهَا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا يَحِلُّ لَهَا وبَسْطِهَا إلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا لَيسَ عَلَيْهَا، فَإذَا هِيَ قَدْ عُقِلَتْ وَشُرِّفَتْ فِي الْعَاجِلِ وَجَبَ لَهَا حُسْنُ الثَّوَاب فِي الآجِلِ.


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8- THE RIGHT OF YOUR STOMACH

And the right of your stomach is that you make it not into a container for a little of that which is unlawful to you or a lot of it. You should be determined to eat what is lawful and not exceed the bounds of strengthening to the extent of belittling your stomach 12 to the point that you loose your manliness. And you should restrain it whenever you are extremely hungry or thirsty, since getting really full will cause indigestion, sluggishness, indolence, and it will hinder you from nobility and any good deeds. And drinking too much will make you feel drunk, light-headed, ignorant, and take away your manliness.

8. حق البطن

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ بَطْنِكَ فَأَنْ لا تَجْعَلَهُ وِعَاءً لِقَلِيلٍ مِنَ الْحَرَامِ وَلا لِكَثِيرٍ، وَأَنْ تَقْتَصِدَ لَهُ فِي الْحَلالِ وَلا تُخرِجَهُ مِنْ حَدِّ التَّقْوِيَةِ إلَى حَدِّ التَّهْوِينِ(2) وَذَهَاب الْمُرُوَّةِ، وَضَبْطُهُ إذَا هَمَّ بالْجُوعِ والظمأ فَإنَّ الشَّبْعَ الْمُنْتَهِي بصَاحِبهِ إلَى التُّخمِ مَكْسَلَةٌ وَمَثْبَطَةٌ وَمَقْطَعَةٌ عَنْ كُلِّ برِّ وَكَرَمٍ. وَإنَّ الري الْمُنْتَهِي بصَاحِبهِ إلَى السُّكْرِ مَسْخَفَةٌ وَمَجْهَلَةٌ وَمَذْهَبَةٌ لِلْمُرُوَّةِ.


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9- THE RIGHT OF YOUR PRIVATE PART

And the right of your private part is that you should protect it from everything that is unlawful for you and help it by lowering your eyes- this is certainly the best way to help it. And you should also remember death often, And threaten yourself with God and try to make yourself fear God. 13 Maintaining one's decency and receiving help in so doing are possible by God's help. There is no strength or power but in Him.

9. حق الفرج

وَأَمَّا حَـقُّ فَرْجِكَ فَحِفْظُهُ مِمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وَالاسْتِعَانَةُ عَلَيْهِ بغَضِّ الْبَصَرِ - فَإنَّهُ مِنْ أَعْوَنِ الأَعْوَانِ- وَكَثْرَةُ ذِكْرِ الْمَوتِ وَالتَّهَدُّدِ لِنَفْسِكَ باللهِ وَالتَّخوِيفِ لَهَا بهِ، وَباللهِ الْعِصْمَةُ وَالتَّأْيِيدُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بهِ.


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RIGHTS OF DEEDS

10- THE RIGHT OF YOUR PRAYER

Then the right of your ritual prayer is that you should know that it is an arrival at the threshold of God and that through it you are standing before God. And when you realize that, then you will stand in the station of him who is lowly, vile, beseeching, trembling, hopeful, fearful, and abased, and you will magnify Him who is before you through stillness, and bowing of the head 14, and humbleness of the limbs, and yielding of the wing15 , and by saying the best supplications to him by yourself and beseeching Him to save you from the responsibilities which rest on your shoulders-surrounded by your faults and exhausted by your sins. And there is no power but in God.

ثم حقوق الأفعال
10 حق الصلاة

فَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّلاةِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّهَا وِفَادَةٌ إلَى اللهِ وَأَنَّكَ قَائِمٌ بهَا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللهِ، فَإذَا عَلِمْتَ ذَلِكَ كُنْتَ خَلِيقًا أَنْ تَقُومَ فِيهَا مَقَامَ الذَّلِيلِ الرَّاغِب الرَّاهِب الْخَائِفِ الرَّاجِي الْمِسْكِينِ الْمُتَضَرِّعِ الْمُعَظِّمِ مَنْ قَامَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ بالسُّكُونِ وَالإطْرَاقِ وَخُشُوعِ الأَطْرَافِ وَلِينِ الْجَنَاحَ وَحُسْنِ الْمُنَاجَاةِ لَهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ وَالطَّلَب إلَيْهِ فِي فَكَاكِ رَقَبَتِكَ الَّتِي أَحَاطَتْ بهِ خَطِيئَتُكَ وَاسْتَهلَكَتْهَا ذُنُوبُكَ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.

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11- THE RIGHT OF FASTING

And the right of fasting is that You should know it is a veil, which God has set up over your tongue, your hearing and your sight, your private parts and your stomach, to protect you from the Fire16 . This meaning is asserted in the tradition: "Fasting is an armor against the Fire." Thus if your parts can calm down within the veil of fasting, you have hopes of being protected.17 But if you leave them agitated behind the veil and let them lift the sides of the veil, then they will look at things that are not lawful for them to look at -that incite lust and powers that are beyond the limits of being God-fearing. It is not safe for you to break through the veil and leave it.18 And there is no power but in God.

11. حق الصوم

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّوْمِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّهُ حِجَابٌ ضَرَبَهُ اللهُ عَلَى لِسَانِكَ وَسَمْعِكَ وبَصَرِكَ وَفَرْجِكَ وبَطْنِكَ لِيَسْتر'َكَ بهِ مِن النَّارِ وَهَكَذَا جَاءَ فِي الْحَديثِ "الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ مِنَ النَّارِ" فَإنْ سَكَنَتْ أَطْرَافُـكَ فِي حَجَبَتِهَا(3) رَجَوْتَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مَحْجُوبًا. وَإنْ أَنْتَ تَرَكْتَهَا تَضْطَرِبُ فِي حِجَابهَا وتَرْفَعُ جَنَبَاتِ الْحِجَاب فَتُطّلِعُ إلَى مَا لَيْسَ لَهَا بالنَّظْرَةِ الدَّاعِيـَةِ لِلشَّهْوَةِ وَالقُوَّةِ الْخَارِجَةِ عَنْ حَدِّ التَّقِيَّةِ للهِ لَمْ تَأمَنْ أَنْ تَخرِقَ الْحِجَابَ وَتَخرُجَ مِنْهُ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


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12- THE RIGHT OF PILGRIMAGE

And the right of pilgrimage 19 is that you should know that it is an arrival at the threshold of your Lord and a flight to Him from your sins; and through it your repentance is accepted and you perform an obligation made incumbent upon you by God.

12. حق الحج

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الحَجّ أَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنّه وِفادةٌ إلى رَبّكَ، و فِرارٌ إليه من ذُنوبكَ وفيهِ قبولُ تَوبتِكَ وقَضاءُ الفَرضِ الَّذي أوجَبَه الله عَليك.13.

13-THE RIGHT OF CHARITY

And the right of charity is that you should know that it is a storing away with your Lord and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses. Then once you know this you will be more confident of it if you donate it in secret than if you donate it in public.20 It is more appropriate for you to do privately what you now do in public and keep the affairs between you and Him secret under all circumstances. And you should also not take your hearing and sight as

13 حق الصدقة

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّدَقَةِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنَّها ذُخرُكَ عِنْدَ رَبكَ وَوَديعَتُكَ الَّتِي لا تَحْتَاجُ إلَى الإشْهَادِ، فَإذا عَلِمْتَ ذَلِك كُنْتَ بمَا اسْتَودَعْتَهُ سِرًّا أَوْثقَ بمَا اسْتَوْدَعْتَهُ عَلانِيَةً، وَكُنْتَ جَدِيرًا أَنْ تَكونَ أَسْرَرْتَ إلَيْهِ أَمْرًا أَعْلَنْتَهُ، وَكَانَ الأَمْرُ بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَهُ فِيهَا سِرًّا عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ


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witnesses for the donations that you make in charity as if you have the most trust yourself. 21 It should not be as if you are not sure that your donations will be returned to you. Finally you should not remind others of your favors since you have done so for yourself. If you remind them of your favors, you will not be immune from being similarly reminded of others' favors to you. Moreover this will prove that your intentions were not pure. If you had pure intentions you would not remind anyone of it. And there is no power but in God. وَلَمْ تَسْتَظْهِرْ عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا اسْتَوْدَعْتَهُ مِنْهَا بإشْهَادِ الأَسْمَاعِ وَالأَبْصَارِ عَلَيْهِ بهَا كَأنَّهَا أَوْثقُ فِي نَفْسِكَ لا كَأنَّكَ لا تثِقُ بهِ فِي تَأْديَةِ وَديعَتِكَ إلَيْكَ، ثُمَّ لَمْ تَمْتَنَّ بهَا عَلَى أَحَدٍ لأَنّهَا لَكَ فَإذا امْتَنَنْتَ بهَا لَمْ تَأْمَنْ أَنْ تَكُونَ بهَا مِثْلَ تَهْـجِينِ(4) حَالِكَ مِنْهَا إلَى مَنْ مَنَنْتَ بهَا عَلَيْهِ لأَنَّ فِي ذلِكَ دَلِيلاً عَلَى أَنّكَ لَمْ تُرِدْ نفْسَكَ بهَـا، وَلَوْ أَرَدْتَ نفْسَكَ بهَا لَمْ تَمْتَنَّ بهَا عَلَى أَحَدٍ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


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14- THE RIGHT OF THE OFFERING

22 And the right of the offering is that through it 23 you purify your will toward your Lord, and expose yourself to His Mercy, and His approval and not the eyes of the observers lower than Him. If this is so, you will neither be hypocritical nor extravagant. You will only intend the offering for God's sake, and know that God wishes your ease, and does not wish your hardship. He also wishes His creatures to take it easy, and does not wish them to suffer hardships. Likewise, modesty is better than arrogance, for there lies extravagance and falsehood in the arrogant, while there are no formalities or falsehoods in the humble and the servile, since they are creatures and they exist in nature. There is no power but in God. 24

14. حق الهدي

وَأمَّا حَقُّ الهَدْيِ فَأَنْ تُخلِصَ بهَا الإرَادَةَ إلَى رَبكَ وَالتَّعَرُّضَ لِرَحْمَتِهِ وَقَبُولِهِ ولا تُرِيدَ عُيُونَ النَّاظِرِينَ دُونهُ، فـَإذَا كُنْتَ كَذَلِكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ مُتَكَلِّفًا ولا مُتَصَنِّعًا وَكُنْتَ إنَّمَا تَقْصِدُ إلَى الله. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الله يُرَادُ بالْيَسِيرِ وَلا يُرَادُ بالْعَسِيرِ كَمَا أَرَادَ بخَلْقِهِ التَّيْسِيرَ وَلَمْ يُرِدْ بهِمُ التَّعْسِيرَ، وَكَذَلِكَ التَّذَلُّلَ أَوْلَى بكَ مِن التَّدَهْقُنِ(5) لأَنَّ الْكُلْفَةَ وَالْمَئونَةَ فِي الْمُتَدَهْقِنِينَ. فَأمَّا التَّذَلُّلُ وَالتَّمَسْكُنُ فَلا كُلْفَةَ فِيهِمَا وَلا مَئونةَ عَلَيْهِمَا لأَنَّهُمَا الْخِلْقَةَ وهُمَا مَوجُودَانِ فِي الطَّبيعَةِ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


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RIGHTS OF LEADERS

15- THE RIGHT OF THE POSSESSOR OF AUTHORITY

Then the right of the possessor of authority is that you should know that God has established you as a trial for him. God is testing him through the authority God has given him over you. And you should sincerely provide him with your advice. And you should not quarrel with him while he has full dominance over you, for thereby you cause your own destruction and his, too. And you should be humble and courteous for his gifts to attain his satisfaction with you, so that he will not harm your religion. And you should seek God's help in this regard. Do not oppose his power and do not resist him. Should you do so, you would have disobeyed him and disobeyed yourself: thus

ثم حقوق الأئمَّة

15 حق سائسك بالسلطان

فأَمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّكَ جُعِلْتَ لَهُ فِتنَة وأنَّهُ مُبْتَلىً فِيكَ بمَا جَعَلَهُ اللهُ لَهُ عَلَيْكَ مِنَ السُّلْطَانِ وَأَنْ تُخلِصَ لَهُ فِي النَّصِيحَةِ وَأَنْ لا تُمَاحِكَهُ(6) وَقَدْ بُسِطْتَ يَدُهُ عَلَيْكَ فَتَكُونَ سَبَبَ هَلاكِ نفْسِكَ وَهلاكِهِ. وتَذَلَّلْ وتَلَطَّفْ لإِعْطَائِهِ مِنَ الرِّضَا مَا يَكُفُّهُ عَنْكَ وَلا يَضُرُّ بدينِكَ وتَسْتَعِينُ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذلِكَ باللهِ. ولا تُعَازَّهُ(7) ولا تُعَانِدَهُ فَإنَّكَ إنْ فَعَلْتَ ذلِكَ عَقَقْتَهُ(8) وَعَقَقْتَ نَفْسَكَ فَعَرَضْتَهَا لِمَكرُوهِهِ وَعَرَضْتَهُ


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exposing yourself to encounter his evil and expose him to destruction by you. Thus you will deserve to be considered to be as his assistant acting against yourself and as his partner in what he does to you. And there is no power but in God.
لِلْهَلَكَةِ فِيكَ وَكُنْتَ خَلِيقًا أَنْ تَكُونَ مُعِينًا لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِكَ وَشَرِيكًا لَهُ فِيمَا أَتى إلَيْكَ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.